GrammarSoft ApS

World of VISL -> Towards a VISL standard for specifying "morphological features"  Visual Interactive Syntax Learning  

VISL standard categories for "morphological features"

  • CG = Constraint Grammar
  • VTB = VISL tree banks


CG-abbr. VTB-abbr. English long form Danish long form
M m masculine gender maskulinum
F f feminine gender femininum
NEU neu neuter gender neutrum
UTR utr uter gender fælleskøn
nG nG no gender or ambiguous gender
S sg singular singularis
P pl plural pluralis
1 (1S, 1P) 1 (1sg, 1pl) 1st person 1. person
2 (2S, 2P) 2 (2sg, 2pl) 2nd person 2. person
3 (3S, 3P) 3 (3sg, 3pl) 3rd person 3. person
nN nN no number or ambiguous number
PR pr present tense præsens
IMPF impf imperfect / past tense imperfektum (datid-default)
PS prt preterite præteritum
MQP pqp pluperfect pluskvamperfektum
FUT fut future futurum
- fut2 future conditional futurum exactum
at vp-level
- perf-c perfect perfectum
- pqp-c pluperfect pludkvamperfektum
COND cond conditional konditionalis
IND ind indicative indikativ
IMP imp imperative imperativ
SUBJ subj subjunctive konjunktiv
AKT act active voice aktiv
PAS pas passive voice passiv
VFIN fin finite finit
- nfin non-finite ikke finit
INF inf infinitive infinitiv
PCP1 pcp1 present participle præsens participium
PCP2 pcp2 past participle perfektum participium
GER ger gerund gerundium
NOM nom nominative nominativ
GEN gen genitive genitiv
DAT dat dative dativ
ACC acc accusative akkusativ
- abl ablative ablativ
- ins instrumental instrumentalis
LOC loc locative lokativ
DIR dir directive direktiv
- voc vocative vokativ
KOMP comp comparative degree komparativ
- pos positive degree positiv
SUP sup superlative degree superlativ
DEF def definite definit
IDF idef indefinite indefinit
nD nD no definiteness or ambiguous definiteness


CG-abbr. VTB-abbr. English long form Danish long form
PoS class
<prop> <prop> noun used as proper noun propriums-brug
<n> <n> adjective used as noun substantivisk brug
<adj> <adj> noun used as adjective adjektivisk brug
Pos subclass
(PROP) <prop> proper noun proprium
<dem> <dem> demonstrative pronoun demonstrativt pronomen
<interr> <int> interrogative pronoun interrogativt pronomen
<pers> <pers> personal pronoun personligt pronomen
<poss> <poss> possessive pronoun possessivt pronomen
<reci> <reci> reciprocal pronoun reciprokt pronomen
<refl> <refl> reflexive pronoun refleksivt pronomen
<rel> <rel> relative pronoun relativt pronomen
- <mod> modal verb modalverbum
<def> <def> (jf. def) definite article bestemt artikel
<indef> <idef> (jf. idef) indefinite article ubestemt artikel
<card> <card> cardinal number kardinaltal
<ord> <ord> ordinal number ordinaltal
- <col> collective number kollektivtal
<deadj> <deadj> derived from an adjective afledt af et adjektiv
inflexional paradigm
- <n1> etc. 1st noun declension substantivernes 1. bøjning
- <adj1> etc. 1st adjective declension adjektivernes 1. bøjning
- <v1> etc. 1st verb conjugation verbernes 1. bøjning


1. ) A distinction is made between morphological features (abbreviation in small letters, no more than 4, latinid by preference) and secondary lexical features (in sharp <...> parentheses), comprising "all the rest":

  • (a) word class usage and subclass (e.g. "<prop>" for who doesn't use "prop" as a word class),
  • (b) valency potential, (e.g. <vt> for "transitive verb", only used in VISL's live analysis?),
  • (c) inflexional paradigm (only used in latin?). It is recommended not to use (or else, minimize), secondary features for school use.

2. ) In the analysis file, features are given as a comma-separated list in round parentheses after the form symbol, in the following order:

  • a) base form (lexeme) in single quotes
  • b) secondary categories in sharp parentheses (optional)
    • PoS subclass
    • inflexional paradigm
    • valency information
    • semantical information
  • c) morphological features

3.) In VISL's interactive java tree program, the morphological abbreviations will be "translated" into Danish or English long forms (last columns), which is what the user will see when he touches a word form with the mouse pointer.

4.) The list above is meant as a super set of categories to be chosen from by the individual language, but obviously it is not yet complete for all languages. It was compiled with Romance and Germanic languages in mind. Additional morphological features might be added for some languages. If this is the case for your language, please send the necessary suggestions (category definition, English and Danish long forms) to VISL will then add them to the common list and suggest a system internal abbreviation.

Examples from Danish, as they appear in the analysis files:

	n('træ',neu,pl,def,gen)	træernes
prop('VISL',nom) VISL
v('sælge',impf,pas) solgtes
adj('forskellig',nG,P,nD,nom) forskellige
art('en',neu,s,idf) et
pron('du',<pers>,2s,acc) dig


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