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The Constraint Grammar category set of "Palavras"

For more explanations and examples, as well as a comparison with the VISL form and function tags used in Palavras' graphical tree analysis, cf. Portuguese VISL category set.

Word class tags -- Inflection tags
Syntactic tags -- Statistics
Subclass tags -- Valency tags
Semantic tags for nouns -- Semantic tags for named entities -- Semantic tags for other PoS


N Nouns
PROP Proper nouns (names)
SPEC Specifiers (defined as non-inflecting pronouns, that can't be used as prenominals):
e.g. certain indefinite pronouns, nominal quantifiers, nominal relatives
DET Determiners (defined as inflecting pronouns, that can be used as prenominals): --
e.g. articles, attributive quantifiers
PERS Personal pronouns (defined as person-inflecting pronouns)
ADJ Adjectives (including ordinals, excluding participles which are tagged V PCP)
ADV Adverbs (both 'primary' adverbs and derived adverbs ending in -mente)
V Verbs (full verbs, auxiliaries)
NUM Numerals (cardinals)
PRP Preposition
KS Subordinating conjunctions
KC Coordinationg conjunctions
IN Interjections
EC Hyphen-separated prefix ("elemento composto", category being phased out)

Where secondary tags (shown as <...>) are retained in the analysis, adverbs (ADV) and the pronoun word classes (SPEC, DET, PERS) are further differentiated into subclasses, two of which (<rel> [relatives] and <interr> [interrogatives]) often share the same word forms, and thus have to be disambiguated word-class-internally. This is in part also necessary for the <setop> [set-operator] subclass of adverbs. Other secondary tags (e.g. valency tags like <vt> for transitive verb) help disambiguate the primary [morphological and syntactical] tags, but are not disambiguated themselves. Like purely semantic tags (e.g. <prof> for profession) they may, however, be useful for resolving lexical polysemy on some higher level of analysis.


Gender: M (male), F (female), M/F [for: N', PROP', SPEC', DET, PERS, ADJ, V PCP, NUM]
Number: S (singular), P (plural), S/P [for: N, PROP', SPEC', DET, PERS, ADJ, V PCP, V VFIN, INF, NUM]
Case: NOM (nominative), ACC (accusative), DAT (dative), PIV (prepositive), ACC/DAT, NOM/PIV [for: PERS]
Person: 1 (first person), 2 (second person), 3 (third person), 1S, 1P, 2S, 2P, 3S, 3P, 1/3S, 0/1/3S [for: PERS, V VFIN, V INF]
Tense: PR (present tense), IMPF (imperfeito), PS (perfeito simples), MQP (mais-que-perfeito), FUT (futuro), COND (condicional) [for: V VFIN]
Mood: IND (indicative), SUBJ (subjunctive), IMP (imperative) [for: V VFIN]
Finiteness: VFIN (finite verb), INF (infinitive), PCP (participle), GER (gerund) [for: V]

(In this table, " ' " after a word class means, that the category in question for this word class is a lexeme category, and thus derived directly from the lexicon. No " ' " means, that the category in question is a wordform category for this word class, and thus expressed by inflection.)

Derivational analysis is marked by <DERS: ....> (suffixation) and <DERP: ...> (prefixation), respectively.
At most intermediate levels of processing ,the asterisk marks capitalisation (<*>) and quotes (<*1> and <*2>).
$ the dollar sign is used to mark non-word items, like punctuation marks ('$.' for a fullstop, '$,' for a colon) and numbers ('$1947').


@SUBJ> @<SUBJ subject
@ACC> @<ACC accusative (direct) object
@DAT> @<DAT dative object (only pronominal)
@PIV> @<PIV prepositional (indirect) object
@ADVS> / @SA> @<ADVS / @<SA adverbial object (place, time, duration, quantity), subject-related
@ADVO> / @OA> @<ADVO / @<OA adverbial object, object-related
@SC> @<SC subject predicative
@OC> @<OC object predicative
@ADVL> @<ADVL adverbial
@PASS> @<PASS agent of passive
(All above clause arguments [@SUBJ, @ACC, @DAT, @PIV, @ADVS, @ADVO, @SC, @OC, @PASS] and the adverbial complements [@ADVL] attach to the nearest main verb to the left [<] or right [>].)
@ADVL 'free' adverbial phrase (in non-sentence expression)
@NPHR 'free' noun phrase (in non-sentence expression without verbs)
@VOK 'vocative' (e.g. 'free' addressing proper noun in direct speech)
@>N prenominal adject (attaches to the nearest NP-head to the right, that is not an adnominal itself)
@N< postnominal adject (attaches to the nearest NP-head to the left, that is not an adnominal itself)
@N<PRED postnominal (in-group predicative) or predicate in small clause introduced by 'com/sem' (rare, e.g. com a mão na bolsa, sem o pai ajudando, não conseguiu)
@APP identifying apposition (always after NP + komma)
@>A prepositioned adverbial adject
(attaches to the nearest ADJ/PCP/ADV or attributive used N to the right)
@A< postpositioned adverbial adject (rare, e.g. caro demais) or dependent/argument of attributive participle (with function tag attached, e.g. @A<ADVL or @A<SC)
@PRED> 'forward' free predicative (refers to the following @SUBJ, even when this is incorporated in the VP)
@<PRED `backward' free predicative (refers to the nearest NP-head to the left, or to the nearest @SUBJ to the left)
@P< argument of preposition
@S< sentence anaphor (`não venceu o que muito o contrariou')
@FAUX (new: <aux>) finite auxiliary (cp. @#ICL-AUX<)
@FMV (new: <mv>) finite main verb
@IAUX (new: <aux>) infinite auxiliary (cp. @#ICL-AUX<)
@IMV (new: <mv>) infinite main verb
@PRT-AUX< verb chain particle (preposition or "que" after auxiliary)
@CO coordinating conjunction
@SUB subordinating conjunction
@KOMP< argument of comparative (e.g. "do que" referring to melhor)
@COM direct comparator without preceding comparative
@PRD role predicator (e.g. "work as", "function as")
@FOC> @<FOC focus marker ("gosta é de peixe.")
@TOP topic constituent ("Esse negócio, não gosto dele.")
@FS- (old: @#FS-) finite clause (combines with clausal role and intraclausal word tag, e.g.@#FS-<ACC @SUB for "não acredito que seja verdade")
@ICL- (old: @#ICL-) infinite clause (combines with clausal role and intraclausal word tag, e.g. @#ICL-SUBJ> @IMV in "consertar um relógio não é fácil")
@ICL-AUX< (old: @#ICL-AUX<) argument verb in verb chain, refers to preceding auxiliary (the verb chain sequence @FAUX - @#ICL-AUX< is used, where both verbs have the same subject, @FMV - @#ICL-<ACC is used where the subjects are different)
@AS- (old @#AS-) averbal (i.e. verb-less) subclause (combines with clausal role and intraclausal word tag, e.g. @#AS-<ADVL @ADVL> in "ajudou onde possível")
@AS< argument of complementiser in averbal subclause

Below an alphabetical list of all possible syntactic tags is presented. The numbers in parentheses are statistics from 1 million words of the CETEMPúblico corpus.

@<ACC (41839)    direct object
@<ACC-PASS (1476)    passive use of pronoun se
@<ADVS and @<ADVO (2723)    adverbial argument
@<ADVL (51664)    adjunct adverbial
@<DAT (591)    dative (indirect) object
@<FOC (414)    focus marker (or right focus bracket)
@<OC (1740)    object complement
@<PASS (1025)    agent of passive
@<PIV (11601)    prepositional object
@<PRED (1007)    free (subject) predicative, right of main verb
@<SC (16147)    subject complement
@<SUBJ (7362)    subject
@>A (9037)    adverbial pre-adject (intensifier before adjective, adverb, pronoun or participle)
@>N (199174)    prenominal modifier
@>P (1908)    modifier of prepositional phrase (intensifier, operator or focus adverb)
@>S (17)    modifier of clause (intensifier, operator or focus adverb)
@A< (5257)    adverbial post-adject (modifier or argument of adjective, adverb or participle)
@A<ADV (162)    adverbial argument of attributive participle
@A<ADVL (1694)    adverbial adjunct of attributive participle
@A<PASS (2307)    agent of passive after attributive participle
@A<PIV (1220)    prepositional object of attributive participle
@A<SC (38)    subject complement of attributive participle
@ACC> (7904)    accusative (direct) object
@ACC>-PASS (1322)    passive use of pronoun se
@ACC>> (41)    double-fronted accusative (direct) object before matrix verb
@ADVS> and @ADVO> (365)    adverbial argument
@ADVL (6095)    top node adverbial
@ADVL> (36767)    adjunct adverbial
@ADVL>A (490)    adjunct adverbial before attributive participle
@ADVL>AS< (30)    adjunct adverbial in averbal clause
@APP (5037)    identifying apposition
@AS< (3706)    clause body of averbal clause
@CO (28420)    co-ordinator
@COM (2459)    comparator (heading averbal clause)
@DAT> (998)    dative (intransitive) object
@FAUX (13235)    finite auxiliary
@FMV (63919)    finite main verb
@FOC> (450)    focus marker (or left focus bracket)
@IAUX (3548)    non-finite auxiliary
@IMV (40677)    non-finite main verb
@KOMP< (174)    argument of comparative hook
@N< (124274)    postnominal modifier or argument
@N<PRED (10903)    postnominal (in-group) predicative (or non-identifying apposition)
@NPHR (9797)    top node noun phrase
@NUM< (188)    second part of numeral chain
@OC> (4)    object complement
@P< (154568)    argument of preposition
@PIV> (256)    prepositional object
@PRD (484)    predicator (heading averbal clause)
@PRED> (1482)    free (subject) predicative, left of main verb
@PREF (28)    prefix (category being phased out)
@PRT-AUX< (3430)    auxiliary particle
@S< (15)    statement predicative (sentence apposition)
@SC> (583)    subject complement
@SUB (11718)    subordinator
@SUBJ> (51098)    subject
@SUBJ>> (92)    double-fronted subject, with interfering matrix og quoting verb
@TOP (217)    topic constituent
@VOK (135)    vocative constituent

The following combinations of the above with clausal forms occur (FS = finite subclause, ICL = non-finite clause, AS = averbal clause, old version with @#):

@AS-<ADVL (1959), @AS-<SC (28) , @AS-A< (71) , @AS-ADVL (72) , @AS-ADVL> (737) , @AS-KOMP< (648) , @AS-N< (370) , @FS-<<ACC (17) , @FS-<ACC (5835) , @FS-<ADVS (3) , @FS-<ADVL (4103) , @FS-<OC (1) , @FS-<SC (430) , @FS-<SUBJ (1102) , @FS-A< (195) , @FS-ACC> (24) , @FS-ACC>> (868) , @FS-ADVL (224) , @FS-ADVL> (1536) , @FS-AS< (17) , @FS-KOMP< (410) , @FS-N< (14393) , @FS-P< (1303) , @FS-S< (335) , @FS-SUBJ> (440) , @ICL-<ACC (3970) , @ICL-<ADVL (3232) , @ICL-<OC (23) , @ICL-<PRED (87) , @ICL-<SC (963) , @ICL-<SUBJ (860) , @ICL-ACC> (61) , @ICL-ADVL (113) , @ICL-ADVL> (478) , @ICL-APP (3) , @ICL-AS< (88) , @ICL-AUX< (16862) , @ICL-IMV (3) , @ICL-N< (3172) , @ICL-N<PRED (1101) , @ICL-NPHR (2) , @ICL-P< (11160) , @ICL-PRED> (198) , @ICL-SUBJ> (329)


These are a somewhat idiosyncratic mixture of lexicon tags and mapped tags, many of them valency tags, that are used by the parser for the disambiguation of the primary tags, word class and syntactic function. Secondary tags themselves are only partly disambiguated on the syntactic level, an important example for full disambiguation being the interrogative and relative subclasses of adverbs and pronouns.

Only the most frequent secondary tags are mentioned here. Tags used in the AC/DC-project of corpus annotation are marked red.

Subclass tags

<artd> definite article (DET)
<arti> indefinite article (DET)
<quant> quantifier pronoun (DET: <quant1>, <quant2>, <quant3>, SPEC: <quant0>) or intensifier adverb
<dem> demonstrative pronoun (DET: <dem>, SPEC: <dem0>)
<poss> possessive pronoun (DET)
<refl> reflexive personal pronoun ("se" PERS ACC, "si" PERS PIV)
<si> reflexive use of 3. person possessive
<reci> reciprocal use of reflexive pronoun (= "um ao outro")
<coll> collective reflexive ("reunir-se", "associar-se")
<diff> differentiator (DET) (e.g. "e outros temas", "a mesma diferença")
<ident> identator (DET) (e.g. "o próprio usuário", "a si mesmo")
<rel> relative pronoun (DET, SPEC)
<interr> interrogative pronoun (DET, SPEC)
<post-det> typically located as post-determiner (DET @N<)
<post-attr> typically post-positioned adjective (ADJ @N<)
<ante-attr> typically pre-positioned adjective (ADJ @>N)
<adv> can be used adverbially (ADJ @ADVL)
<ks> relative adverb used like a subordinating conjunction
<kc> conjunctional adverb (pois, entretanto)
<det> determiner usage/inflection of adverb ("ela estava toda nua.")
<foc> focus marker adverb (also forms of "ser")
<prp> relative adverb used like a preposition
<KOMP> <igual> "equalling" comparative (ADJ, ADV) (e.g. "tanto", "tão")
<KOMP> <corr> correlating comparative (ADJ, ADV) (e.g. "mais velho", "melhor")
<komp> <igual> "equalling" particle referring to comparative (e.g. "como", "quanto")
<komp> <corr> "correlating" particle referring to comparative (e.g. "do=que")
<SUP> superlative
<setop> operational adverb (eg. "não", "nunca", "ja'", "mais" in "não mais")
<dei> discourse deictics (e.g. "aqui", "ontem")
<card > cardinal (NUM)
<NUM-ord> ordinal (ADJ)
<NUM-fract> fraction-numeral (N)
<cif> cipher (<card> NUM, <NUM-ord> ADJ)
<sam-> first part of morphologically fused word pair ("de" in "dele")
<-sam> last part of morphologically fused word pair ("ele" in "dele")
<*> 1. letter capitalized
<*1> left quote attached
<*2> right quote attached
<hyfen> hyphenated word
<ABBR> abbreviation
<prop> noun, adjective etc. used as name (upper case initial in mid-sentence)
<n> adjective or participle used as a "noun", typically as head of a nominal phrase
<fmc> finite main clause heading verb
<co-acc>, <co-advl>, <co-app>, <co-dat>, <co-fmc>, <co-ger>, <co-inf>, <co-oc>, <co-pcv>, <co-postad>, <co-postnom>, <co-pred>, <co-prenom>, <co-prparg>, <co-sc>, <co-subj>, <co-vfin> co-ordinator tags indicating what is co-ordinated: @ACC, @ADVL, @APP, @DAT, main clauses, GER, INF, @OC, PCP-@IMV, @A<, @N<, @PRED, @>N, @P<, @SC, @SUBJ, VFIN (ordered list matching the <co-...> tags)

Valency tags:

<vt> monotransitive verb with accusative object
<vi> (<ve>) intransitive verb (ergative verb)
<vtd> ditransitive verb with accusative and dative objects
<PRP^vp> monotransitive verb with prepositional object (headed by PRP)
<PRP^vtp> ditransitive verb with accusative and prepositional objects
<vK> copula verb with subject predicative
<vtK> copula verb with object predicative
<va> transitive verb with adverbial argument:
<va+LOC>, <va+DIR>, <vta+LOC>, <vta+DIR>, <vt+QUANT> transitive verb with NP as quantitative adverbial object (e.g. "pesar")
<vt+TID> transitive verb with NP as temporal adverbial object (e.g. "durar")
<vU> "impersonal" verbs (normally in the 3S-person, e.g. "chove")
<x> auxiliary verb with infinitive (tagged @(F)AUX - @#ICL-AUX<)
<x+PCP> auxiliary verb with participle (tagged @(F)AUX - @#ICL-AUX<)
<x+GER> auxiliary verb with gerund (tagged @(F)AUX - @#ICL-AUX<)
<PRP^xp> auxiliary verb with (prepositional) auxiliary particle and infinitive (tagged as @(F)AUX - @PRT-AUX< - @#ICL-AUX<)
<xt> "auxiliary" verb with infinitive clause subject in the accusative case, and ACI-constructions, (both tagged as @(F)MV - @SUBJ> - @#ICL-ACC)
<PRP^xtp> "auxiliary" verb with accusative object and prepositional object containing an infinitive clause with its (unexpressed) subject being identical to the preceding accusative object , (tagged as @(F)MV - @<ACC - @<PIV - @#ICL-P<)
<vr> reflexive verbs (also <vrp>, <vaux-r>, <vaux-rp>)
<vq> "cognitive" verb governing a que-sentence
<qv> "impersonal" verb with que-subclause as subject predicative ("parece que", "consta que")
<+interr> "discourse" verb or nominal governing an interrogative subclause
<+n> noun governing a name (PROP) (e.g. "o senhor X")
<+num> noun governing a number (e.g. "cap. 7", "no dia 5 de dezembro")
<num+> "unit" noun (e.g. "20 metros")
<+INF> governs infinitive (N, ADJ)
<+PRP> governs prepositional phrase headed by PRP, e.g. <+sobre>
<PRP+> (typically) argument of preposition PRP
<+que> <+PRP+que> nominal governing a que-subclause (N, ADJ)

Semantic tags for nouns

PALAVRAS assigns angle-bracketed semantical tags for most nouns and verbs and some adjectives. The 157 semantic tags used for nouns are prototype classes, like <Hprof> for 'professional', which again translate into a subset of atomic features taken from a list of 16 values. The semantic tags are bilingually motivated (Portuguese-Danish translation alternatives) and polysemic words will thus have several tags. The semantical subsystem is in an experimental stage, and not subject to a full disambiguation at the present time, though it can - together with the valency subsystem - yield a fair degree of polysemy resolution even now. The noun tag list below is in alphabetical order, with uppercase tags first.

Animal prototypes:

<A> Animal, umbrella tag (clone, fêmea, fóssil, parasito, predador)
<AA> Group of animals (cardume, enxame, passarada, ninhada)
<Adom> Domestic animal or big mammal (likely to have female forms etc.: terneiro, leão/leoa, cachorro)
<AAdom> Group of domestic animals (boiada)
<Aich> Water-animal (tubarão, delfim)
<Amyth> Mythological animal (basilisco)
<Azo> Land-animal (raposa)
<Aorn> Bird (águia, bem-te-vi)
<Aent> Insect (borboleta)
<Acell> Cell-animal (bacteria, blood cells: linfócito)

Plant prototypes:

<B> Plant, umbrella tag
<BB> Group of plants, plantation (field, forest etc.: mata, nabal)
<Btree> Tree (oliveira, palmeira)
<Bflo> Flower (rosa, taraxaco)
<Bbush> Bush, shrub (rododendro, tamariz)

cp. also <fruit> (fruit, berries, nuts: maçã, morango, avelã, melancia)
further proposed categories: <Bveg> (vegetable espargo, funcho)

Human prototypes:

<H> Human, umbrella tag
<HH> Group of humans (organisations, teams, companies, e.g. editora)
<Hattr> Attributive human umbrella tag (many -ista, -ante)
<Hbio> Human classified by biological criteria (race, age etc., caboclo, mestiço, bebé, adulto) <Hfam> Human with family or other private relation (pai, noiva)
<Hideo> Ideological human (comunista, implies <Hattr>), also: follower, disciple (dadaista)
<Hmyth> Humanoid mythical (gods, fairy tale humanoids, curupira, duende)
<Hnat> Nationality human (brasileiro, alemão), also: inhabitant (lisboeta)
<Hprof> Professional human (marinheiro, implies <Hattr>), also: sport, hobby (alpinista)
<Hsick> Sick human (few: asmático, diabético, cp <sick>)
<Htit> Title noun (rei, senhora)

Place and spatial prototypes:

<L> Place, umbrella tag
<Labs> Abstract place (anverso. auge)
<Lciv> Civitas, town, country, county (equals <L> + <HH>, cidade, país)
<Lcover> Cover, lid (colcha, lona, tampa)
<Lh> Functional place, human built or human-used (aeroporto, anfiteatro, cp. <build> for just a building)
<Lopening> opening, hole (apertura, fossa
<Lpath> Path (road, street etc.: rua, pista)
<Lstar> Star object (planets, comets: planeta, quasar)
<Lsurf> surface (face, verniz, cp. <Lcover>)
<Ltip> tip place, edge (pico, pontinha, cp. <Labs>)
<Ltop> Geographical, natural place (promontório, pântano)
<Ltrap> trap place (armadilha, armazelo)
<Lwater> Water place (river, lake, sea: fonte, foz, lagoa)

cp. also <bar> (barrier), <build> (building), <inst> (institution), <pict> (picture), <sit> (situation)
cp. also position prototypes: <pos-an> (anatomical position), <pos-soc> (social position)

Vehicle prototypes:

<V> Vehicle, umbrella tag and ground vehicle (car, train: carro, comboio, tanque, teleférico)
<VV> Group of vehicles (armada, convoy: frota, esquadra)
<Vwater> Water vehicle (ship: navio, submersível, canoa)
<Vair> Air vehicle (plane: hidroplano, jatinho)

Abstract prototypes:

<ac> Abstract countable, umbrella tag (alternativa, chance, lazer)
<ac-cat> Category word (latinismo, número atômico)
<ac-sign> sign, symbol (parêntese, semicolcheia)
<am> Abstract mass/non-countable, umbrella tag (still contains many cases that could be <f-..>, e.g. habilidade, legalidade)
<ax> Abstract/concept, neither countable nor mass (endogamia), cp. <f>, <sit> etc.

cf. also <f...> (features), <dir> (direction), <geom...> (shapes), <meta> ("transparent" noun)
cf. also concept prototypes: <conv> (convention), <domain>, <ism> (idelology), <genre>, <ling> (language), <disease>, <state...>, <therapy>
cf. also quantity prototypes: <unit>, <amount>, <cur> (currency), <mon> (money amount)

Action prototypes:

<act> Action, umbrella tag (+CONTROL, PERFECTIVE)
<act-beat> beat-action (thrashing, pancada, surra)
<act-d> do-action (typically dar/fazer + N, tentativa, teste, homenagem)
<act-s> speech act or communicative act (proposta, ordem)
<act-trick> trick-action (cheat, fraud, ruse, jeito, fraude, similar to <act-d>)
<activity> Activity, umbrella tag (+CONTROL, IMPERFECTIVE, correria, manejo)

cp. also <fight>, <dance>, <sport>, <game>, <therapy>

Anatomical prototypes:

<an> Anatomical noun, umbrella tag (carótida, clítoris, dorso)
<anmov> Movable anatomy (arm, leg, braço, bíceps, cotovelo)
<anorg> Organ (heart, liver, hipófise, coração, testículo)
<anost> Bone (calcâneo, fíbula, vértebra)
<anzo> Animal anatomy (rúmen, carapaça, chifres, tromba)
<anorn> Bird anatomy (bico, pluma)
<anich> Fish anatomy (few: bránquias, siba)
<anent> Insect anatomy (few: tentáculo, olho composto)
<anbo> Plant anatomy (bulbo, caule, folha)

cp. also <f-an> (human anatomical feature)

<amount> quantity noun (bocada, teor, sem-fim)
<bar> barrier noun (dique, limite, muralha)
<build> building (casa, citadela, garagem)

Thing prototypes:

<cc> Concrete countable object, umbrella tag (briquete, coágulo, normally movable things, unlike <part-build>)
<cc-h> Artifact, umbrella tag (so far empty category in PALAVRAS)
<cc-beauty> ornamental object (few: guirlanda, rufo)
<cc-board> flat long object (few: board, plank, lousa, tabla)
<cc-fire> fire object (bonfire, spark, chispa, fogo, girândola)
<cc-handle> handle (garra, ansa, chupadouro)
<cc-light> light artifact (lampião, farol, projector)
<cc-particle> (atomic) particle (few: cátion, eletrônio)
<cc-r> read object (carteira, cupom, bilhete, carta, cf. <sem-r>)
<cc-rag> cloth object (towel, napkin, carpet, rag) , cp. <mat-cloth>
<cc-stone> (= cc-round) stones and stone-sized round objects (pedra, itá, amonite, tijolo)
<cc-stick> stick object (long and thin, vara, lançe, paulito)

cp. also <con> (container), <cord> (cord), <furn> (funiture), <pict> (picture), <tube>, <clo...> (clothing), <tool...>

Substance prototypes:

<cm> concrete mass/non-countable, umbrella tag, substance (cf. <mat>, terra, choça, magma)
<cm-h> human-made substance (cf. <mat>, cemento)
<cm-chem> chemical substance, also biological (acetileno, amônio, anilina, bilirrubina
<cm-gas> gas substance (so far few: argônio, overlap with. <cm-chem> and <cm>)
<cm-liq> liquid substance (azeite, gasolina, plasma, overlap with <food> and <cm-rem>)
<cm-rem> remedy (medical or hygiene, antibiótico, canabis, quinina, part of <cm-h>, overlap with <cm-chem>)

cp. also <mat...> (materials)

Clothing prototypes:

<cloA> animal clothing (sela, xabraque)
<cloH> human clothing (albornoz, anoraque, babadouro, bermudas)
<cloH-beauty> beauty clothing (e.g. jewelry, diadema, pendente, pulseira)
<cloH-hat> hat (sombrero, mitra, coroa)
<cloH-shoe> shoe (bota, chinela, patim)

Collective prototypes:

<coll> set, collective (random or systematic collection/compound/multitude of similar but distinct small parts, conjunto, série)
<coll-cc> thing collective, pile (baralho, lanço)
<coll-B> plant-part collective (buquê, folhagem)
<coll-sem> semantic collective, collection (arquivo, repertório)
<coll-tool> tool collective, set (intrumentário, prataria)

cp. also <HH> (group), <AA> (herd), <BB> (plantation), <VV> (convoy)

<col> coulor (amarelo, carmesim, verde-mar)
<con> container (implies <num+> quantifying, ampola, chícara, aquário)
<conv> convention (social rule or law, lei, preceito)
<cord> cord, string, rope, tape (previously <tool-tie>, arame, fio, fibrila)
<cur> currency noun (countable, implies <unit>, cf. <mon>, dirham, euro, real, dólar)
<dance> dance (both <activity>, <genre> and <sem-l>, calipso, flamenco, forró)
<dir> direction noun (estibordo, contrasenso, norte)
<domain> domain (subject matter, profession, cf. <genre>, anatomia, citricultura, dactilografia)
<drink> drink (cachaça, leite, guaraná, moca)

Time and event prototypes:

<dur> duration noun (test: durar+, implies <unit>, e.g. átimo, mês, hora)
cf. <per> (period) and <temp> (time point)
<event> event (-CONTROL, PERFECTIVE, milagre, morte)
cp. also <occ> (organized event), <process>, <act...> and <activity>

Feature prototypes:

<f> feature/property, umbrella tag (problematicidade, proporcionalidade)
<f-an> anatomical "local" feature, includes countables, e.g. barbela, olheiras)
<f-c> general countable feature (vestígio, laivos, vinco)
<f-h> human physical feature, not countable (lindura, compleição, same as <f-phys-h>, cp. anatomical local features <f-an>)
<f-psych> human psychological feature (passionalidade, pavonice, cp. passing states <state-h>)
<f-q> quantifiable feature (e.g. circunferência, calor, DanGram's <f-phys> covers both <f> and <f-q>)
<f-right> human social feature (right or duty): e.g. copyright, privilégio, imperativo legal)
cp. also state prototypes: <state>, <state-h> (human state)

Food prototypes:

<food> natural/simplex food (aveia, açúcar, carne, so far including <spice>)
<food-c> countable food (few: ovo, dente de alho, most are <fruit> or <food-c-h>)
<food-h> human-prepared/complex culinary food (caldo verde, lasanha)
<food-c-h> culinary countable food (biscoito, enchido, panetone, pastel)

cp. also <drink>, <fruit>
further proposed categories: <spice>

<fight> fight, conflict (also <activity> and +TEMP, briga, querela)
<fruit> fruit, berry, nut (still mostly marked as <food-c>, abricote, amora, avelã, cebola)
<furn> furniture (cama, cadeira, tambo, quadro)

Concept prototypes:

<game> play, game (bilhar, ioiô, poker, also <activity>)
<genre> genre (especially art genre, cf. <domain>, modernismo, tropicalismo)

cp. also <conv> (convention), <dance>, <domain>, <ism> (idelology), <ling> (language), <disease>, <sport>, <state...>, <therapy>

<geom> geometry noun (circle, shape, e.g. losango, octógono, elipse)
<geom-line> line (few: linha, percentil, curvas isobáricas)

<inst> "institution", functional structure (+PLACE, +HUM, auto-escola, bolsa, cinemateca) , cp. <Lh> (human-made place) and <HH> (group, organisation)
<ism> ideology or other value system (anarquismo, anti-ocidentalismo, apartheid)
<ling> language (alemão, catalão, bengali)
<mach> machine (complex, usually with moving parts, betoneira, embrulhador, limpa-pratos, cp. <tool>)

<mat> material (argila, bronze, granito, cf. <cm>)
<mat-cloth> cloth material (seda, couro, vison, kevlar), cp. <cc-rag>

<meta> meta noun (tipo, espécie)
<mon> amount of money (bolsa, custo, imposto, cf. <cur>)
<month> month noun/name (agosto, julho, part of <temp>)
<occ> occasion, human/social event (copa do mundo, aniversário, jantar, desfile, cp. unorganized <event>)
<per> period of time (prototypical test: durante, e.g. guerra, década, cf. <dur> and <temp>)

Part prototypes:

<part> distinctive or functional part (ingrediente, parte, trecho)
<part-build> structural part of building or vehicle (balustrada, porta, estai)
<piece> indistinctive (little) piece (pedaço, raspa)

cf. other structurals, such as <cc-handle>, <Ltip>

Perception prototypes:

<percep-f> what you feel (senses or sentiment, pain, e.g. arrepio, aversão, desagrado, cócegas, some overlap with <state-h>)
<percep-l> sound (what you hear, apitadela, barrulho, berro, crepitação)
<percep-o> olfactory impression (what you smell, bafo, chamuscom fragrância)
<percep-t> what you taste (PALAVRAS: not implemented)
<percep-w> visual impression (what you see, arco-iris, réstia, vislumbre)

<pict> picture (combination of <cc>, <sem-w> and <L>, caricatura, cintilograma, diapositivo)

<pos-an> anatomical/body position (few: desaprumo)
<pos-soc> social position, job (emprego, condado, capitania, presidência)
<process> process (-CONTROL, -PERFECTIVE, cp. <event>, balcanização, convecção, estagnação)

Semantic product prototypes:

<sem> semiotic artifact, work of art, umbrella tag (all specified in PALAVRAS)
<sem-c> cognition product (concept, plan, system, conjetura, esquema, plano, prejuízo)
<sem-l> listen-work (music, cantarola, prelúdio, at the same time <genre>: bossa nova)
<sem-nons> nonsense, rubbish (implies <sem-s>, galimatias, farelório)
<sem-r> read-work (biografia, dissertação, e-mail, ficha cadastral)
<sem-s> speak-work (palestra, piada, exposto)
<sem-w> watch-work (filme, esquete, mininovela)

cp. <ac-s> (speach act), <talk>
cf. also concept prototypes: <conv> (convention), <domain>, <ism> (idelology), <game>, <genre>, <ling> (language), <disease>, <state...>, <therapy>

<sick> disease (acne, AIDS, sida, alcoolismo, cp. <Hsick>)
<sick-c> countable disease-object (abscesso, berruga, cicatriz, gangrena)

State-of-affairs prototypes:

<sit> psychological situation or physical state of affairs (reclusão, arruaça, ilegalidade, more complex and more "locative" than <state> and <state-h>
<state> state (of something, otherwise <sit>), abundância, calma, baixa-mar, equilíbrio
<state-h> human state (desamparo, desesperança, dormência, euforia, febre, cp. <f-psych> and <f-phys-h>, which cover innate features)

<sport> sport (capoeira, futebol, golfe, also <activity> and <domain>)

<talk> speech situation, talk, discussion, quarrel (implies <activity> and <sd>, entrevista, lero-lero)
<temp> temporal object, point in time (amanhecer, novilúnio, test: até+, cf. <dur> and <per>)
<therapy> therapy (also <domain> and <activity>, acupuntura, balneoterapia)

Tool prototypes:

<tool> tool, umbrella tag (abana-moscas, lápis, computador, maceta, "handable", cf. <mach>)
<tool-cut> cutting tool, knife (canivete, espada)
<tool-gun> shooting tool, gun (carabina, metralhadora, helicanão, in Dangram: <tool-shoot>)
<tool-mus> musical instrument (clavicórdio, ocarina, violão)
<tool-sail> sailing tool, sail (vela latina, joanete, coringa)

cp. also <mach> (machine)

<tube> tube object (cânula, gasoduto, zarabatana, shape-category, typically with another category, like <an> or <tool>)
<unit> unit noun (always implying <num+>, implied by <cur> and <dur>, e.g. caloria, centímetro, lúmen))

Weather prototypes:

<wea> weather (states), umbrella tag (friagem, bruma)
<wea-c> countable weather phenomenon (nuvem, tsunami)
<wea-rain> rain and other precipitation (chuvisco, tromba d'água, granizo)
<wea-wind> wind, storm (brisa, furacão)


Person categories <hum>, HAREM PESSOA:

<hum> (INDIVIDUAL) person name (cp. <H>)
<official> (CARGO) official function (~ cp. <Htitle> and <Hprof>)
<member> (MEMBRO) member

Organisation/Group categories <org>, HAREM ORGANIZACAO:

<admin> (ADMINISTRACAO, ORG.) administrative body (government, town administration etc.)
<org> (INSTITUICAO/EMPRESA) commercial or non-commercial, non-administrative non-party organisations (not place-bound, therefore not the same as <Linst>)
<inst> (EMPRESA) organized site (e.g. restaurant, cp. <Linst>)
<media> (EMPRESA) media organisation (e.g. newspaper, tv channel)
<party> (INSTITUICAO) political party
<suborg> (SUB) organized part of any of the above

currently unsupported: <company> (EMPRESA) company (not site-bound, unlike <inst>, now fused with. <org>)

Group categories, HAREM PESSOA:

<groupind> (GROUPOIND) people, family
<groupofficial> (GROUPOCARGO) board, government (not fully implemented)

currently unsupported: <grouporg> (GROUPOMEMBRO) club, e.g. football club (now fused with <org>)

Place categories <top>, HAREM LOCAL:

<top> (GEOGRAFICO) geographical location (cp. <Ltop>)
<civ> (ADMINISTRACAO, LOC.) civitas (country, town, state, cp. <Lciv>)
<address> (CORREIO) address (including numbers etc.)
<site> (ALARGADO) functional place (cp. <Lh>)
<virtual> (VIRTUAL) virtual place
<astro> (OBJECTO) astronomical place (in HAREM object, not place)

suggested: <road> (ALARGADO) roads, motorway (unlike <address>)

Event categories <occ>, HAREM ACONTECIMENTO:

<occ> (ORGANIZADO) organised event
<event> (EVENTO) non-organised event
<history> (EFEMERIDE) one-time [historical] occurrence

Work of art/product categories <tit>, HAREM OBRA:

<tit> (REPRODUZIDO) [title of] reproduced work, copy
<pub> (PUBLICACAO) [scientific] publication
<product> (PRODUTO) product brand
<V> (PRODUTO) vehicle brand (cp. <V>, <Vair>, <Vwater>)
<artwork> (ARTE) work of art

Abstract categories <brand>, HAREM ABSTRACCAO:

<brand> (MARCA) brand
<genre> (DISCIPLINA) subject matter
<school> (ESCOLA) school of thought
<idea> (IDEA) idea, concept
<plan> (PLANO) named plan, project
<author> (OBRA) artist's name, standing for body of work
<absname> (NOME)
<disease> (ESTADO) physiological state, in particular: disease

Thing categories <common>, HAREM COISA:

<object> (OBJECT) named object
<common> (OBJECT) common noun used as name
<mat> (SUBSTANCIA) substance
<class> (CLASSE) classification category for things
<plant> (CLASSE) plant name
<currency> (MOEDA) currency name (also marked on the number)

Time categories (if used for NUM or N rather than PROP, marked only on the numeral or noun, without MWE'ing, unlike HAREM TEMPO):

<date> (DATA) date
<hour> (HORA) hour
<period> (PERIODO) period
<cyclic> (CICLICO) cyclic time expression

Numeric value categories (marked only on the numeral, without MWE'ing, unlike HAREM VALOR):

<quantity> (QUANTIDADE) simple measuring numeral
<prednum> (CLASSIFICADO) predicating numeral
<currency> (MOEDA) currency name (also marked on the unit)


<mass> mass noun (e.g. "leite", "a'gua")

<jh> adjective modifying human noun
<jn> adjective modifying inanimate noun
<ja> adjective modifying animal
<jb> adjective modifying plant
<col> color adjective
<nat> nationality adjective (also: from a certain town etc.)
<attr> (human) attributive adjective (not fully implemented, cp. <Hattr>, e.g. "um presidente COMUNISTA")

<vH> verb with human subject
<vN> verb with inanimate subject


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